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2018-2-4 00:10

为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难? 写作技巧系列(六)

首先,小编整理了前5篇连载文章的重点,方便大家浏览复习。

 为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难? 写作技巧系列(一)

 写作技巧系列(二)| 为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难?

 为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难?  写作技巧系列(三)

 为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难? 写作技巧系列(四)

 为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难? 写作技巧系列(五)

TitleContent
为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难?写作技巧系列(一)写作的万能公式
为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难?写作技巧系列(二)记叙文的定义以及写作
为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难?写作技巧系列(三)说服文的定义以及写作
为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难?写作技巧系列(四)议论文的定义以及和说服文的区别
为什么国外小孩不觉得作文那么难?写作技巧系列(五)议论文的结构以及段落写作

接下来,这一篇文章中,我们来讲解一下写作中容易被学生忽视的一个语法错误:不适当的标点符号。这个知识点很零散,需要大家真正理解,才能做到不出错。我们都说,细节决定成败。标点符号的使用在写作的作用就是这样。用的好,足以表明学生的严谨性。尤其是对于高年级的学生而言,在电子邮件以及网上提交论文这么频繁的时代,学生更应该注意这些写作的细节。在SAT考试中,就有考到punctuation这个内容。


我们今天主要讲解3个高频使用的标点符号各自的用法以及他们之间的差异,并附有练习题,希望大家认真阅读哦!都是一手宝贵的资料!

Comma 逗号,

1. Use a comma before the conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) that joins the two independent clauses in a compound sentence.

在以for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so(我们可以简单称其为FANBOYS)这些连接词的两个独立的分句间,我们使用逗号。

Examples:

(1) I like working outside, and I also enjoy reading.

(2) He got out of school early, so he took a nap.


2. Use a comma after relatively lengthy introductory phrases or dependent (subordinate) clauses.

如果句子开头有描述性或者介绍性的短语或者依赖性分句,我们需要使用逗号。比如例句1和例句2

Examples:

(1) In order to be successful, one must learn to write well.(表示目的的短语)

(2) After she learned the rules for using commas, her grades improved.(表示时间的分句)


It is important to note that a comma should not be used when the clause or phrase comes at the end of the sentence as illustrated by the third example.

需要注意的是,如果将短语句末,逗号就不需要了。

Her grades improved after she learned to use commas correctly.


3. Use commas to separate items in a series.

用逗号来区分列举的事物。

Example:

 Amy ordered two hamburgersa Coke,and a large order of fries.


4Use commas before and after non-essential elements (parts of the sentence providing information that is not essential in order to understand its meaning).

在非限制性的成分前后都需要使用逗号,非限制性成分指的是在句子中起到补充说明的内容。

Example:

Horace Mann Elementary, which is the smallest school in the district, enrolls only 160 students.


5.Use commas to separate the elements of dates and places.

用逗号区分日期,地点。

Examples:

(1) The date was June 12, 1999.

(2) He was born in St. Cloud, Minnesota.


6. Use a comma before a direct quotation. Also, as shown in the example, commas (and periods as well) go inside the quotation marks.

在直接引语前面,用逗号断开。在右侧引号前,如果句子没有表达完整,也需要使用逗号。

Example:

When asked if he had studied for the test, Paul replied,"Only a little," and his grade showed it!


7. Use commas before and after words and phrases like however and nevertheless that serve as interrupters.

however,nevertheless这样的连接词用作断开一个完整的句子时,连接词前后需要用到逗号。

Example:

Adam did not like math. He was, however, very successful in his math classes.



Semi-colon 分号;  

1. Use a semi-colon in place of the comma and conjunction to separate the two independent clauses in a compound sentence.

在并列句中,两个独立的小分句之间,需要用分号。

Example:

 I like working outside; I also enjoy reading.

 

2. Use a semi-colon before the conjunctive adverb (such as however and therefore) that joins two independent clauses. Be sure to put a comma after the conjunctive adverb.

在两个独立的小分句之间,如果有连词副词,比如however,therefore..需要在连接副词前加上分号。

Example:

 I like working outside; however, I also enjoyreading.

这些连接副词还有:thereforehowever,in addition,nonetheless,indeed,in fact,nevertheless,then,consequently,furthermore,moreover

 

3. Use semi-colons to separate elements in a series if they contain internal punctuation.

当列举的事物分种类时,我们需要用分号来断开不同种类的事物。

Example:

On his fishing trip, Jeff caught rainbow, brook,and lake troutlarge-mouth, small mouth, and white bass; and afew northern pike.

 

4. A semi-colon can separate longer phrases in a list that has been introduced by a colon, or which is more complicated than a simple list of words.

分号可以隔开所列举的事物,当列举的事物不仅仅是几个简单的并列的词。

Example:

The children need to bring with them: a hot-water bottle or an extra blanket if the weather is colda cup,a plate and a bowla knife,a fork and a spoon.


Colon 冒号:

1. Colons can introduce a list.

冒号可以用来列举。

This is a colon :

If you are writing a list,a colon shows that the list is about to begin.

如果你在例句事物的时候,冒号可以表明,列举的内容在冒号之后。

Example:

 I need these ingredients for the cake: 2 eggs,100g sugar, and 100g flour.

 

2. Colons can go before bullet points.

Example: 

Come to Spark Zoo! Here are some of our attractions

A large collection of lions and tigers.

Rare breeds of parrot,including ‘Sally the SingParrot’.

The UK’s biggest playground.

 

3.Colons introduce explanations.

冒号可以用来解释。

Example: 

The frog was feeling very full: he’d eaten twenty-three flies.


我们来看看练习


1.I like working outside I also enjoy reading.

答案:I like working outsideIalso enjoy reading.

这一题请参考分号的用法第一条,因为两个小分句都是独立存在的。

 

2.Trump who is the president of the U.S.A is a very ambitious person.

答案:Trump ,who is the president of the U.S.A , is a very ambitious person.

这一题请参考逗号的用法第四条。在非限制性的成分前后都需要使用逗号,非限制性成分指的是在句子中起到补充说明的内容。

 

3.We travelled to Rome Italy Athens Greece and Paris France.

答案:We travelled to Rome,Italy ;Athens ,Greece; and ParisFrance.

这一题请参考分号的用法第三条。当列举的事物分种类时,我们需要用分号来断开不同种类的事物。罗马是意大利的首都,这是一组;雅典是希腊的首都,这是第二组;巴黎是法国的首都,这是第三组。

 

4.I expected a package this morning however I waited all day for it to arrive.

答案:I expected a package this morninghowever, I waited all day for it to arrive.

这一题请参考分号用法第二条。在两个独立的小分句之间,如果有连词副词,比如however,therefore..需要在连接副词前加上分号。

 

5.The farmer was upset his potatoes had disappeared.

答案:The farmer was upset: his potatoes had disappeared

这一题请参考冒号用法第三条。冒号可以用来解释。


今天的讲解就到这里,希望大家认真阅读,欢迎来电咨询英文课程。

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